The Diagnostic and Intraoperative Use of NIR ICG in Perforator Flap Procedures: An Animal Study (2009)

Eric Sturgis Anastomosis, Basic Research, Free Flap Perfusion, Free Flaps, General and Transplant Surgery, Hamamatsu PDE, ICG Fluorescence, ICG Perfusion, Microsurgery, Plastic Surgery, Reconstructive Surgery

Image-Guided Perforator Flap Design Using Invisible Near-Infrared Light and Validation with X-Ray Angiography 

In this study, 22 pigs were injected with a bolus of indocyanine green (ICG) through a central venous line and observed with a near infrared (NIR) camera to identify dominant perforator flaps from the deep superior epigastric artery (DSEA). After the flap was identified and cut, it was given another ICG injection to confirm perfusion. In 8 of 22 of the pigs NIR ICG was confirmed with x-ray angiography. Researchers made a direct correlation between the results of the NIR ICG and x-ray angiography. This 2009 animal study “validated the clinical relevance of ICG fluorescence to tissue perfusion… the use of NIR wavelengths for fluorescence emission minimizes tissue autofluorescence and photo scatter, resulting in relatively high sensitivity” (Matsui et al 4).

Bibliographic information

Matsui, A., Lee, B. T., & Frangioni, J. V. (2009). Image-guided perforator flap design using invisible near-infrared light and validation with x-ray angiography. Annals of Plastic Surgery63(3), 327-330. Retrieved from

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