Detection of Skin Perforators by Indocyanin Green Fluorescence Nearly Infrared Angiography
This article studies the effectiveness of Green Fluorescence near-infrared angiography in identifying perforator vessels for use in island flap procedures. The Hamamatsu PDE camera was used for the angiographies. The authors found that the PDE was effective in helping to identify perforator vessels up to a depth of 2 cm below skin surface. Vessels were identified prior to raising the flaps. Compared with the Conventional angiography, magnetic resonance angiography,computed tomographic angiography, ultrasonic Doppler flowmetry, laser Doppler imaging, and recovery-enhanced thermography, the PDE was found to identify perforators more precisely and at a higher resolution with less background noise.
Azuma, Ryuichi; Morimoto, Yuji; Masumoto, Kazuma; Nambu, Masaki; Takikawa, Megumi; Yanagibayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kikuchi, Makoto; and Kiyosawa, Tomoharu. “Detection of Skin Perforators by Indocyanin Green Fluorescence Nearly Infrared Angiography” Plastic and Reconstructive Journal. Volume 122, Number 4. October 2008. Pages 1062-1067.